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p. 7

The following alphabet is used in transcribing native words:--

a, e, i, u have their continental sounds (in Chukchee and Koryak always long).

o like o in nor.

ä obscure vowel (long).

ë like a in make.

A, E, I obscure vowels (short).

ê like e in bell, but prolonged.

ei a diphthong with an accent on i. It always has a laryngeal intonation, ei?.

o between o and u long.

ü mouth in i position, lips in u position (short).

w, y as in English.

Very long and very short vowels are indicated by the macron and breve respectively.

The diphthongs are formed by combining any of the vowels with i and u. Thus:--

ai like i in hide.

ei like ei in vein.

oi like oi in choice.

au like ow in how.

l as in German.

ł pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching the palate a little above the alveoli of the upper jaw, the back of the tongue free.

L posterior palatal l, surd and exploded (affricative), the tip of the tongue pressed against the hard palate.

Ł posterior palatal l, sonant.

r as in French.

ř dental with slight trill.

ŗ velar.

m as in English.

n as in English

ñ nasal n sound.

n* palatized n (similar to ny).

b, p as in English.

b`, p` d`, d`, g`, k` have a spirant added (gehauchter Asatz of Sievers).

v bilabial.

g like g in good.

h as in English.

x like ch in German Bach.

x* like ch in German ich.

p. 8

q velar k.

k as in English.

ġ velar g.

d, t as in English.

d*, t* palatized (similar to dy and ty).

s as in English.

s* palatized (similar to sy).

š palatized German z.

c like English sh.

č like English ch.

j like j in French jour.

ĵ like j in joy.

c* strongly palatized

ĵ* strongly palatized j.

! designates increased stress of articulation.

? a very deep laryngeal intonation.

? a full pause between two vowels: yiñe?a.

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