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a b goes 4 times into a c and 9 into a m. The greatest thickness of the arm between the elbow and the hand goes 6 times into a m and is equal to r f. The greatest thickness of the arm between the shoulder and the elbow goes 4 times into c m, and is equal to h n g. The smallest thickness of the arm above the elbow x y is not the base of a square, but is equal to half the space h 3 which is found between the inner joint of the arm and the wrist joint.
The width of the wrist goes 12 times into the whole arm; that is from the tip of the fingers to the shoulder joint; that is 3 times into the hand and 9 into the arm.
The arm when bent is 4 heads.
The arm from the shoulder to the elbow in bending increases in length, that is in the length from the shoulder to the elbow, and this increase is equal to the thickness of the arm at the wrist when seen in profile. And the space between the bottom of the chin and the parting of the lips, is equal to the thickness of the 2 middle fingers, and to the width of the mouth and to the space between the roots of the hair on the forehead and the top of the head 167 . All these distances are equal to each other, but they are not equal to the above-mentioned increase in the arm.
The arm between the elbow and wrist never increases by being bent or extended.
The arm, from the shoulder to the inner joint when extended.
When the arm is extended, p n is equal to n a. And when it is bent n a diminishes 1/6 of its length and p n does the same. The outer elbow joint increases 1/7 when bent; and thus by being bent it increases to the length of 2 heads. And on the inner
side, by bending, it is found that whereas the arm from where it joins the side to the wrist, was 2 heads and a half, in bending it loses the half head and measures only two: one from the [shoulder] joint to the end [by the elbow], and the other to the hand.
The arm when folded will measure 2 faces up to the shoulder from the elbow and 2 from the elbow to the insertion of the four fingers on the palm of the hand. The length from the base of the fingers to the elbow never alters in any position of the arm.
If the arm is extended it decreases by 1/3 of the length between b and h; and if--being extended--it is bent, it will increase
the half of o e. 168 The length from the shoulder to the elbow is the same as from the base of the thumb, inside, to the elbow a b c.
169 The smallest thickness of the arm in profile z c goes 6 times between the knuckles of the hand and the dimple of the elbow when extended and 14 times in the whole arm and 42 in the whole man . The greatest thickness of the arm in profile is equal to the greatest thickness of the arm in front; but the first is placed at a third of the arm from the shoulder joint to the elbow and the other at a third from the elbow towards the hand.
184:167 : Queste cose. This passage seems to have been written on purpose to rectify the foregoing lines. The error is explained by the accompanying sketch of the bones of the arm.
185:168 59-61: The figure sketched in the margin is however drawn to different proportions.
185:169 62-64: The arm sketch on the margin of the MS. is identically the same as that given below on Pl. XX which may therefore be referred to in this place. In line 62 we read therefore z c for m n.
185:170 : Compare Pl. XVII. Lines 1-10 and 11-15 are written in two columns below the extended arm, and at the tips of the fingers we find the words: fine d'unghie (ends of the nails). Part of the text--lines 22 to 25--is visible by the side of the sketches on Pl. XXXV, No. 1.