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The Negro, by W.E.B. Du Bois, [1915], at

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There is no general history of the Negro race. Perhaps Sir Harry H. Johnston, in his various works on Africa, has come as near covering the subject as any one writer, but his valuable books have puzzling inconsistencies and inaccuracies. Keane's Africa is a helpful compendium, despite the fact that whenever Keane discovers intelligence in an African he immediately discovers that its possessor is no "Negro." The articles in the latest edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica are of some value, except the ridiculous article on the "Negro" by T. A. Joyce. Frobenius' newly published Voice of Africa is broad-minded and informing, and Brown's Story of Africa and its Explorers brings together much material in readable form. The compendiums by Keltie and White, and Johnston's Opening up of Africa are the best among the shorter treatises.

None of these authors write from the point of view of the Negro as a man, or with anything but incidental acknowledgment of the existence or value of his history. We may, however, set down certain books under the various subjects which the chapters have treated. These books will consist of (1) standard works for wider reading and (2) special works on which the author has relied for his statements or which amplify his point of view. The latter are starred.


A. S. White: The Development of Africa, 2d ed., 1892.

Stanford's Compendium of Geography: Africa, by A. H. Keane, 2d ed., 1904-7.

E. Reclus: Universal Geography, Vols. X-XIII.

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J. Deniker: The Races of Man, etc., New York, 1904.

*J. Finot: Race Prejudice (tr. by Wade-Evans), New York, 1907.

*W. Z. Ripley: The Races of Europe, etc., New York, 1899.

*Jacques Loeb: in The Crisis, Vol. VIII, p. 84, Vol. IX p. 92.

*Papers on Inter-Racial Problems Communicated to the First Universal Races Congress, etc. (ed. by G. Spiller), 1911.

*G. Sergi: The Mediterranean Race, etc., London, 1901.

*Franz Boas: The Mind of Primitive Man, New York, 1911.

C. B. Davenport: Heredity of Skin Color in Negro-White Crosses, 1913.


*Sir Harry H. Johnston: The Opening up of Africa (Home University Library).

------- A History of the Colonization of Africa by Alien Races, Cambridge, 1905.

*G. W. Stowe: The Native Races of South Africa (ed. by G. M. Theal), London, 1910.

(Consult also Johnston's other works on Africa, and his article in Vol. XLIII of the journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland; also Inter-Racial Problems, and Deniker, noted above.)


(The works of Breasted and Petrie, Maspero, Budge and Newberry and Garstang are the standard books on Egypt. They mention the Negro, but incidentally and often slightingly.)

*A. F. Chamberlain: "The Contribution of the Negro to Human Civilization" (Journal of Race Development, Vol. I, April, 1911).

T. E. S. Scholes: Glimpses of the Ages, etc., London, 1905.

W. H. Ferris: The African Abroad, etc., 2 vols., New Haven, 1913.

E. A. W. Budge: The Egyptian Sudan, 2 vols., 1907.

*Archeological Survey of Nubia.

*A. Thompson and D. Randal McIver: The Ancient Races of the Thebaid, 1905.


Job Ludolphus: A New History of Ethiopia (tr. by Gent), London, 1682.

W. S. Harris: Highlands of Æthiopia, 3 vols., London, 1844.

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R. S. Whiteway: The Portuguese Expedition to Abyssinia . . . as narrated by Castanhosa, etc., 1902.


*F. L. Shaw (Lady Lugard): A Tropical Dependency, etc., London, 1906.

(The reader may dismiss as worthless Lady Lugard's definition of "Negro." Otherwise her book is excellent.)

*Es-Sa’di, Abderrahman Ben Abdallah, etc., translated into French by O. Houdas, Paris, 1900.

*F. DuBois: Timbuktu the Mysterious (tr. by White), 1896.

*W. D. Cooley: The Negroland of the Arabs, etc., 1841.

*H. Barth: Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa, etc., 5 vols., 1857-58.

*Ibn Batuta, Travels, etc. (tr. by Lee), 1829.

*Leo Africanus: The History and Description of Africa, etc. (tr. by Pory, ed. by R. Brown), 3 vols., 1896.

*E. W. Blyden: Christianity, Islam, and the Negro Race.

*Leo Frobenius: The Voice of Africa (tr. by Blind), 2 vols., 1913.

Mungo Park: Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa, 1799.


*Leo Frobenius (as above).

Sir Harry H. Johnston: Liberia, 2 vols., New York, 1906.

H. H. Foote: Africa and the American Flag, New York, 1859.

T. H. T. McPherson: A History of Liberia, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Studies.

T. J. Alldridge: A Transformed Colony (Sierra Leone), London, 1910.

E. D. Morel: Affairs of West Africa, 1902.

H. L. Roth: Great Benin and Its Customs, 1903.

*F. Starr: Liberia, 1913.

W. Jay: An Inquiry, etc., 1835.

*A. B. Ellis: The Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast, 1887

------ The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, 1890.

------ The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, 1894.

C. H. Read and O. M. Dalton: Antiquities from the City of Benin, etc., 1899.

*M. H. Kingsley: West African Studies, 2d. ed., 1904.

*G. W. Ellis: Negro Culture in West Africa (Vai-speaking peoples), 1914

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*G. Schweinfurth: The Heart of Africa, Vol. II, 1873.

*H. M. Stanley: Through the Dark Continent, 2 vols., 1878.

------ In Darkest Africa, 2 vols., 1890.

------ The Congo, etc., 2 vols., London, 188 5.

H. von Wissman. My Second Journey through Equatorial Africa, 1891.

*H. R. Fox-Bourne: Civilization in Congoland, 1903.

Sir Harry H. Johnston: George Grenfell and the Congo, 2 vols., London, 1 908.

*E. D. Morel: Red Rubber, London, 1906.


*Sir Harry H. Johnston: The Uganda Protectorate, 2d ed., 2 vols., 1904.

------ British Central Africa, 1897

------ The Nile Quest, 1903.

*D. Randal McIver: Mediæval Rhodesia, 1906.

*The Last Journals of David Livingstone in Central Africa (ed. by H. Waller), 1874.

J. Dos Santos: Ethiopia Oriental (Theal's Records of South Africa, Vol. VII).

C. Peters: "Ophir and Punt in South Africa" (African Society Journal, Vol. 1).

De Barros: De Asia.

R. Burton: Lake Regions of Central Africa, 1860.

R. p. Ashe: Chronicles of Uganda, 1894.

(See also Stanley's works, as above.)


*G. M. Theal: History and Ethnography of South Africa of the Zambesi to 1795, 3 vols., 1907-10.

------ History of South Africa since September, 1795, 5 vols., 1908

------ Records of South Eastern Africa, 9 vols., 1898-1903

*J. Bryce: Impressions of South Africa, 1897.

D. Livingstone: Missionary Travels in South Africa, 1857.

*South African Native Affairs Commission, 1903-5, Reports, etc., 5 vols., Cape Town, 1904-5.

G. Lagden: The Basutos, London, 1909.

J. Stewart: Lovedale, 1884.

(See also Stowe, as above.)

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Dowd: The Negro Races, 1907, 1914.

*H. Gregoire: An Inquiry concerning the Intellectual and Moral Faculties and Literature of Negroes, etc. (tr. by Warden), Brooklyn, 1810.

C. Bücher: Industrial Evolution (tr. by Wickett), New York, 1904.

*Franz Boas: "The Real Race Problem" (The Crisis, December, 1910)

------ Commencement Address (Atlanta University Leaflet, No. 19).

*F. Ratzel: The History of Mankind (tr. by Butler), 3 vols., 1904,

C. Hayford: Gold Coast Institutions, 1903.

A. B. Camphor: Missionary Sketches and Folk Lore from Africa, 1909.

R. H. Nassau: Fetishism in West Africa, 1907.

*William Schneider: Die Culturfähigkeit des Negers, Frankfort, 1885.

*G. Schweinfurth: Artes Africanae, etc., 1875.

Duke of Mecklenburg: From the Congo to the Niger and the Nile (English tr.), Philadelphia, 1914.

D. Crawford: Thinking Black.

R. N. Cust: Sketch of Modern Language of Africa, 2 vols., 1883.

H. Chatelain: The Folk Lore of Angola.

D. Kidd: The Essential Kaffir, 1904.

------ Savage Childhood, 1906.

------ Kaffir Socialism and the Dawn of Individualism, 1908.

M. H. Tongue: Bushman Paintings, Oxford, 1909.

(See also the works of A. B. Ellis, Miss Kingsley, Sir Harry H. Johnston, Frobenius, Stowe, Theal, and Ibn Batuta; and particularly Chamberlain's article in the Journal of Race Development.)


T. K. Ingram: History of Slavery and Serfdom, London, 1895. (Same article revised in Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.)

John R. Spears: The American Slave Trade, 1900.

*T. F. Buxton: The African Slave Trade, and Its Remedy, etc., 1896.

T. Clarkson: History . . . of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade, etc., 2 vols., 1808.

R. Drake: Revelations of a Slave Smuggler, New York, 1860.

*Report of the Lords of the Committee of Council, etc., London, 1789.

*B. Mayer: Captain Canot or Twenty Years of an African Slaver, etc., 1854.

W. E. B. DuBois: The suppression of the African Slave-Trade to the U.S.A., 1896.

(See also Bryan Edwards' West Indies.)

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Fletcher and Kidder: Brazil and the Brazilians, 1879.

*Bryan Edwards: History . . . of the British West Indies, 5 editions, vols. II-V, 1793-1819.

*Sir Harry H. Johnston: The Negro in the New World, 1910.

T. G. Steward: The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804, 1914.

J. N. Leger: Haiti, etc., 1907.

J. Bryce: South America, etc., 1912.

*J. B. de Lacerda: "The Metis or Half-Breeds of Brazil" (Inter-Racial Problems, etc.)

A. K. Fiske: History of the West Indies, 1899.


*Walker's Appeal, 1829.

*G. W. Williams: History of the Negro Race in America, 1619-1880, 1882.

B. G. Brawley: A Short History of the American Negro, 1913.

B. T. Washington: Up from Slavery, 1901.

------ The Story of the Negro, 2 vols., 1909.

*The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, 1912.

*G. E. Stroud: Sketch of the Laws relating to Slavery, etc., 1827.

The Human Way: Addresses on Race Problems at the Southern Sociological Congress, Atlanta, 1913 (ed. by J. E. McCulloch).

W. J. Simmons: Men of Mark, 1887.

*J. R. Giddings: The Exiles of Florida, 1858.

W. E. Nell: The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution, etc., 1855.

C. W. Chesnutt: The Marrow of Tradition, 1901.

P. L. Dunbar: Lyrics of Lowly Life, 1896.

*Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, revised edition, 1892.

*H. E. Kreihbel: Afro-American Folk Songs, etc., 1914.

T. P. Fenner and others: Cabin and Plantation Songs, etc., 1901.

W. F. Allen and others: Slave Songs of the United States, 1867.

W. E. B. DuBois: "The Negro Race in the United States of America" (Inter-Racial Problems, etc.)

------ "The Economics of Negro Emancipation" (Sociological Review, October, 1911).

------ John Brown.

------ The Philadelphia Negro, 1899.

W. E. B. DuBois: "Reconstruction and its Benefits" (American Historical Review, Vol. XV, No. 4).

p. 153

------ editor, The Crisis: A Record of the Darker Races, monthly, 1910.

------ editor, The Atlanta University Studies:

No. 1. Mortality Among Negroes in Cities, 1896.

No. 2. Social and Physical Conditions of Negroes in Cities, 1897.

No. 3. Some Efforts of Negroes for Social Betterment, 1898.

No. 4. The Negro in Business, 1899.

No. 5. The College Bred Negro, 1900.

No. 6. The Negro Common School, 1901.

No. 7. The Negro Artisan, 1902.

No. 8. The Negro Church, 1903.

No. 9. Notes on Negro Crime, 1904

No. 10. A Select Bibliography of the Negro American, 1905

No. 11. Health and Physique of the Negro American, 1906.

No. 12. Economic Co-operation among Negro Americans, 1907.

No. 13. The Negro American Family, 1908.

No. 14. Efforts for Social Betterment among Negro Americans, 1909.

No. 15. The College Bred Negro American, 1910.

No. 16. The Common School and the Negro American, 1911.

No. 17. The Negro American Artisan, 1912.

No. 18. Morals and Manners among Negro Americans, 1913.

*G. W. Cable: The Silent South, etc., 1885.

*J. R. Lynch: The Facts of Reconstruction, 1913.

*J. T. Wilson: The Black Phalanx, 1897.

William Goodell: Slavery and Anti-Slavery, 1852.

G. S. Merriam: The Negro and the Nation, 1906.

A. B. Hart: The Southern South, 1910.

*G. Livermore: An Historical Research respecting the Opinions of the Founders of the Republic on Negroes, etc., 1862.

Hartshorn and Penniman: An Era of Progress and Promise, 1910 (profusely illustrated).

*James Brewster: Sketches of Southern Mystery, Treason, and Murder.

Willcox and DuBois: Negroes in the United States (United States Census of 1900, Bulletin No. 8).


*J. S. Keltie: The Partition of Africa, 2d ed., 1895.

B. T. Washington: The Future of the Negro.

W. E. B. DuBois: "The Future of the Negro Race in America" (East and West, Vol. II, No. 5).

------ Souls of Black Folk, 1913.

p. 154

------ Quest of the Silver Fleece.

Alexander Crummell: The Future of Africa, 2d ed., 1862.

*Casely Hayford: Ethiopia Unbound, 1911.

Kelly Miller: Out of the House of Bondage, 1914

------ Race Adjustment, 1908.

*J. Royce: Race Questions, etc., 1908.

*R. S. Baker: Following the Color Line, 1908.

N. S. Shaler: The Neighbor.

E. D. Morel: "Free Labor in Tropical Africa" (Nineteenth Century and After, 1914).

(See also Finot, Boas, Inter-Racial Problems, and White's Development of Africa.)